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Survey, symptomatology, transmission, host range and characterization of begomovirus associated with yellow mosaic disease of ridge gourd in southern India

Patil, Chandrakant V., Ramdas, S. V., Premchand, U., Shankarappa, K. S.
VirusDisease 2017 v.28 no.2 pp. 146-155
Bemisia tabaci, Benincasa hispida, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Datura, Lagenaria siceraria, Luffa acutangula, Luffa aegyptiaca, Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus, biotic factors, chlorosis, cucumbers, environmental factors, host plants, host range, hybrids, leaves, nucleotide sequences, phylogeny, pumpkins, sequence analysis, surveys, tobacco, vegetable crops, zucchini, India
Ridge gourd is an important vegetable crop and is affected by several biotic and abiotic factors. Among the different biotic factors, ridge gourd yellow mosaic disease (RgYMD) is new emerging threat for the production of ridge gourd. The incidence of the RgYMD varied from 30 to 100% in southern India with highest disease incidence of 100% observed in Belagavi district of Karnataka state. The infected plants showed chlorosis, mosaic, cupping of leaves, blistering, reduction in leaf size and stunted growth. The varieties/hybrids grown in the farmer’s fields were found to be susceptible to the disease. Begomovirus was detected in 61 out 64 samples collected from different areas of southern India. Further, all the samples failed to give amplification for beta and alpha satellites. The transmission studies revealed that single whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is enough to transmit the virus, however, 100% transmission was observed with 10 whiteflies. The minimum acquisition access period and inoculation access period for transmission of virus by whitefly was 15 min. Among the 56 host plants belonging to diversified families tested for host range, sponge gourd, ash gourd, bottle gourd, pumpkin, cucumber, summer squash, cluster bean, tobacco and datura were shown to be susceptible. Seventy six varieties/hybrids evaluated for identifying the resistance source for RgYMD, all were found highly susceptible. Sequence analysis of DNA-A revealed that the causal virus shared highest nucleotide sequence identity (92.3%) with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) infecting sponge gourd from northern India. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of both DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the begomovirus associated with RgYMD is found to be strain of ToLCNDV. This is first report of ToLCNDV association with RgYMD from southern India.