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Effects of Carissa opaca fruits extracts on oxidative pulmonary damages and fibrosis in rats

Sahreen, Sumaira, Khan, Muhammad Rashid, Khan, Rahmat Ali
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2014 v.14 no.1 pp. 40
Carissa spinarum, DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone), alternative medicine, antioxidants, asthma, body weight, carbon tetrachloride, catalase, dimethyl sulfoxide, enzyme activity, fibrosis, fruit extracts, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, histopathology, humans, lipid peroxidation, lungs, males, olive oil, oxidative stress, peroxidase, protective effect, rats, silymarin, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances
BACKGROUND: Carissa opaca is a Pakistani fruit, traditionally used in the treatment of various human ailments including asthma and pulmonary damage. The present study investigated the protective effects of Carissa opaca against CCl₄-induced oxidative stress in rat lungs. METHODS: To assess the protective effects of Carissa opaca, 42 Sprague–Dawley male rats (170–180 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group I was untreated and group II received olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.) and dimethyl sulfoxide orally. Groups III, IV, V, VI and VII were administered CCl₄, 3 ml/kg bodyweight (30% in olive oil i.p.). Group IV was administered 50 mg/kg bodyweight silymarin whereas groups V, VI and VII were treated with 200 mg/kg of various fractions of Carissa opaca after 48 h of CCl₄ treatment for eight weeks. Antioxidant profiles in lungs were evaluated by estimating the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, quinone reductase and reduced glutathione. CCl₄-induced lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with conjugation of DNA damage and histopathology. RESULTS: Administration of CCl₄ for 8 weeks significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration while increasing TBARS content and DNA damage. Co-treatment of various fractions of Carissa opaca and silymarin restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content. Changes in TBARS concentration and DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) following Carissa opaca and silymarin treatment in lung. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathological changes in rat lungs induced by CCl₄ were significantly restored by co-treatment with Carissa opaca and silymarin.