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A SNP in the promoter region of theVvmybA1 gene is responsible for differences in grape berry color between two related bud sports of grape

Xu, Yanshuai, Jiang, Nan, Zhang, Yaguang, Wang, Min, Ren, Junpeng, Tao, Jianmin
Plant growth regulation 2017 v.82 no.3 pp. 457-465
DNA fragmentation, Vitis vinifera, anthocyanins, biosynthesis, bud sport, color, cultivars, genes, grapes, microsatellite repeats, pedigree, promoter regions, sequence analysis, single nucleotide polymorphism, somatic embryos, Brazil
The VvmybA1 gene in grape (Vitis vinifera) plays a key role in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. The grape cultivars, ‘Benitaka’ (red color) and ‘Brazil’ (black color) were the result of a bud mutation. ‘Benetika’ was derived from ‘Italia’ (green color) and ‘Brazil’ was developed from ‘Benetika’. Single sequence repeat (SSR) molecular marker analysis was performed in order to demonstrate that the three cultivars have a common pedigree. A sequence analysis of the promoter region and coding sequence of VvmybA1 revealed a base substitution between ‘Benitaka’ and ‘Brazil’ in the promoter region and a deletion of a large DNA fragment in the promoter region of ‘Italia’. Anthocyanin content and expression of the VvmybA1 and UFGT genes in ‘Brazil’ were higher than in ‘Benitaka’ and barely detectable in ‘Italia’. A transient expression system was used to introduce VvmybA1 driven by the three different promoters present in ‘Italia’, ‘Brazil’, and ‘Benitaka’ into somatic embryos of ‘Centennial Seedless’ (Vitis vinifera L.) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This resulted in the production of red cells in the embryos transformed with the constructs of VvmybA1 from ‘Brazil’ and ‘Benitaka’ and no color production in embryos transformed with the VvmybA1 construct from ‘Italia’. In addition, the embryos transformed with the ‘Brazil’ construct had more red color than the embryos transformed with the ‘Benitaka’ construct. These results suggested that a SNP mutation in the promoter region of VvmybA1 in ‘Benitaka’ (red color) was responsible for the color change displayed by ‘Brazil’ (black color).