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Recent methods of drought stress tolerance in plants

Ali, Farman, Bano, Asghari, Fazal, Aliya
Plant growth regulation 2017 v.82 no.3 pp. 363-375
abscisic acid, agricultural biotechnology, antioxidants, beneficial microorganisms, bioavailability, biochar, biochemical pathways, biosynthesis, climate change, complementary DNA, drought, drought tolerance, enzymes, exopolysaccharides, gene expression regulation, genes, indole acetic acid, nanoparticles, nutrients, oxidative stress, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, proteins, signal transduction, solutes, stress tolerance, transgenic plants, volatile compounds, water balance, water stress, water use efficiency
In the climate change scenario the drought has been diagnosed as major stress affecting crop productivity. This review demonstrates some recent findings on the amelioration of drought stress. Nanoparticles, synthetic growth regulators viz. Trinexapac-ethyl, and Biochar addition helps to economize the water budget of plants, enhances the bioavailability of water and nutrients as well as overcomes drought induced osmotic and oxidative stresses. Besides ABA, SA and JA are also involved in inducing tolerance to drought stress through modulation of physiological and biochemical processes in plants. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) offer new opportunities in agricultural biotechnology. These beneficial microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere/endo-rhizosphere of plants and impart drought tolerance by improving root architechture, enhancing water use efficiency, producing exopolysaccharides, phytohormones viz, ABA, SA and IAA and volatile compounds. Further PGPR also play positive role in combating osmotic and oxidative stresses induced by drought stress through enhancing the accumulation of osmolytes, antioxidants and upregulation or down regulation of stress responsive genes. In transgenic plants stress inducible genes enhanced abiotic stress tolerance by encoding key enzymes regulating biosynthesis of compatible solutes. The role of genes/cDNAs encoding proteins involved in regulating other genes/proteins, signal transduction process and strategies to improve drought stress tolerance have also been discussed.