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Effect of light and natural ventilation systems on the growth parameters and carvacrol content in the in vitro cultures of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

Silva, Sâmia Torres, Bertolucci, Suzan Kelly Vilela, da Cunha, Samuel Henrique Braga, Lazzarini, Luiz Eduardo Santos, Tavares, Marília Claudiano, Pinto, José Eduardo Brasil Pereira
Plant cell, tissue, and organ culture 2017 v.129 no.3 pp. 501-510
Plectranthus amboinicus, carvacrol, chemical analysis, environmental factors, filters, fluorescent lamps, gamma-terpinene, light emitting diodes, light intensity, natural ventilation, p-cymene, plantlets
The aim of the current study is to investigate the influence of light intensity, quality of light and alternative membrane sytems on the growth and headspace-GC/MS chemical analysis of Plectranthus amboinicus cultivated in vitro. Nodal segments were grown under light intensities (26, 51, 69, 94 and 130 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹) provided by cool-white fluorescent lamps. Apical segments were grown under light-emitting diodes blue; red; 1 blue/2.5 red; 2.5 blue/1 red; 1 blue/1 red and white fluorescent lamps. Apical and nodal segments were grown under alternative membrane and membrane-free systems. One, two or four PTFE membranes were used on the lid of the culture vessel. The membranes provided natural ventilation and worked as filters. The results have shown significant differences in the growth and carvacrol content, as well as in the content of carvacrol precursors (γ-terpinene and p-cymene) in different treatments. Among all tested light intensities, the significant increase in the dry weight and in the carvacrol content of plantlets derived from the nodal segments was recorded at 69 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The monochromatic red led to greater shoot length and higher dry weight in plantlets derived from the apical segments, as well as to carvacrol accumulation greater than that provided by the fluorescent lamps. The culture vessel enclosure by one and two membranes led to higher dry weight in plantlets derived from the apical and nodal segments, respectively. They also showed higher carvacrol content. Thus, it is possible optimizing the growth and carvacrol content in P. amboinicus cultivated in vitro by adjusting these environmental parameters.