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Toxicological assessment of tungsten oxide nanoparticles in rats after acute oral exposure

Chinde, Srinivas, Dumala, Naresh, Rahman, Mohammed Fazlur, Kamal, Sarika Srinivas Kalyan, Kumari, Srinivas Indu, Mahboob, Mohammed, Grover, Paramjit
Environmental science and pollution research international 2017 v.24 no.15 pp. 13576-13593
DNA damage, acute toxicity, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, blood serum, body weight, brain, catalase, chromosome aberrations, females, genetic disorders, genotoxicity, glutathione, humans, light scattering, liver, malondialdehyde, manufacturing, nanoparticles, neoplasms, oral administration, oral exposure, probability, rats, tissues, toxicity testing, transmission electron microscopy, tungsten oxide, velocimetry, wildlife
Advances in and the rapid growth of the nanotechnology sector have escalated manufacture of nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in a significant increase in the probability of exposure of humans and wildlife to these materials. Many NPs have been found to exert genotoxicity. Therefore, genotoxicity studies are mandatory to assess the toxicity of NPs as a concern of succumbing to genetic diseases and cancers are universal. Tungsten oxide (WO₃) NPs are being explored extensively in various fields. However, the toxicological data of WO₃ NPs by oral route in mammals is limited. Hence, the goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the acute toxicity of WO₃ NPs and microparticles (MPs) after single oral administration with 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight doses in female Wistar rats. TEM, dynamic light scattering and laser Doppler velocimetry techniques were used to characterise the particles. The genotoxicity studies were conducted using comet, micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays. Alterations in biochemical indices and metal distribution in various organs were also evaluated. The mean size of WO₃ NPs and MPs by TEM was 53.2 ± 1.91 nm and 5.17 ± 3.18 μm, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in DNA damage and micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations after exposure to 1000 mg/kg dose of WO₃ NPs. Significant alterations in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, reduced glutathione, catalase and malondialdehyde levels in serum and liver were found only at the higher dose of WO₃ NPs. Tungsten (W) biodistribution was observed in all the tissues in a dose-, time- and organ-dependent manner. In addition, the maximum concentration of W was found in the liver and the least in the brain was observed. The test substances were found to have a relatively low acute toxicity hazard. The data obtained gives preliminary information on the potential toxicity of WO₃ NPs and MPs.