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Changes in water quality in the Owabi water treatment plant in Ghana
- Akoto, Osei, Gyamfi, Opoku, Darko, Godfred, Barnes, Victor Rex
- Appl Water Sci 2017 v.7 no.1 pp. 175-186
- World Health Organization, alkalinity, ammonia, chromium, coliform bacteria, color, copper, drinking water, guidelines, nitrates, nitrites, nutrient content, phosphates, sulfates, turbidity, water quality, water treatment, Ghana
- The study was conducted on the status of the quality of water from the Owabi water treatment plant that supplies drinking water to Kumasi, a major city in Ghana, to ascertain the change in quality of water from source to point-of-use. Physico-chemical, bacteriological water quality parameters and trace metal concentration of water samples from five different treatment points from the Owabi water treatment plant were investigated. The raw water was moderately hard with high turbidity and colour that exceeds the WHO guideline limits. Nutrient concentrations were of the following order: NH₃ < NO₂ ⁻ < NO₃ ⁻ < PO₄ ³⁻ < SO₄ ²⁻ and were all below WHO permissible level for drinking water in all the samples at different stages of treatment. Trace metal concentrations of the reservoir were all below WHO limit except chromium (0.06 mg/L) and copper (0.24 mg/L). The bacteriological study showed that the raw water had total coliform (1,766 cfu/100 mL) and faecal coliform (257 cfu/100 mL) that exceeded the WHO standard limits, rendering it unsafe for domestic purposes without treatment. Colour showed strong positive correlation with turbidity (r = 0.730), TSS (r ≥ 0.922) and alkalinity (0.564) significant at p < 0.01. The quality of the treated water indicates that colour, turbidity, Cr and Cu levels reduced and fall within the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. Treatment process at the water treatment plant is adjudged to be good.