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Spatiotemporal analysis of the atmospheric and surface urban heat islands of the Metropolitan Area of Toluca, Mexico

Rivera, Erika, Antonio-Némiga, Xanat, Origel-Gutiérrez, Gabriel, Sarricolea, Pablo, Adame-Martínez, Salvador
Environmental earth sciences 2017 v.76 no.5 pp. 225
Landsat, autumn, cities, climate, dry season, heat island, population size, soil water, spring, summer, surface temperature, weather stations, wet season, wind, winter, Latin America, Mexico
The dynamic of consolidation of urban areas in Latin America has allowed that almost 80% of the population concentrates in cities; this has produced changes in land covers and modified regional climate, propitiating the appearance of urban heat islands. The Metropolitan Area of Toluca, State of Mexico, Mexico, holds the fifth national place in population size and experiences this process, because of this, the objective is to analyze and compare the spatiotemporal characteristics of the atmospheric urban heat island obtained from data gathered from 12 urban and rural weather stations with the surface urban heat island obtained from the digital processing of four Landsat 8 images. Results show the year-round presence of night-time atmospheric urban heat islands, which reach a peak in autumn (up to 6 °C). Daytime atmospheric urban heat islands occur in summer and autumn with a maximum intensity of 4 °C. For their part, surface urban heat islands occur in spring, summer and autumn and reach maximums of 19 °C in intensity. A strong correlation was found between wetness and surface temperature (coefficient of determination, 0.8) in spring and winter. Soil wetness directly impacts the formation of weak urban heat islands in dry season, and intense ones in wet season, while the green areas and the winds affect the spatial distribution of the same.