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Molecular detection and characterization of picobirnaviruses in piglets with diarrhea in Thailand

Wilburn, Lauren, Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn, Kochjan, Pakawat, Saikruang, Wilaiporn, Kumthip, Kattareeya, Khamrin, Pattara, Maneekarn, Niwat
Archives of virology 2017 v.162 no.4 pp. 1061-1066
Bocavirus, DNA primers, Picobirnavirus, RNA-directed RNA polymerase, Rotavirus A, diarrhea, farms, feces, genes, genetic variation, hosts, livestock and meat industry, mixed infection, monophyly, piglets, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, secondary infection, sequence analysis, transcription (genetics), Thailand
Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, bi-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus. Taxonomically, the genus Picobirnavirus belongs to the Picobirnaviridae family. PBV infects a wide range of hosts and causes opportunistic infections, but its role in diarrheal disease remains unclear. To determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine PBVs in Northern Thailand, 380 fecal samples collected from diarrheic and non-diarrheic piglets, raised in 22 pig farms, were tested for the presence of PBV. Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed using primer sets specific to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. PBV was detected in 86 of 265 (32.5%) diarrheic piglets and in 26 of 115 (22.6%) non-diarrheic piglets. All the PBV strains detected in this study belonged to genogroup I and a high proportion of PBV-positive piglets were co-infected with group A rotavirus (RVA) and bocavirus (BoV). Phylogenetic analysis of representative genogroup I strains revealed remarkably high similarity between strains; these formed a monophyletic cluster with 97-100% sequence identity in the RdRp gene. The strains were also closely related to genogroup I PBV Chinese porcine strain. The findings indicate that PBV infection is common in piglets with and without diarrhea in Northern Thailand.