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Apple necrotic mosaic virus, a novel ilarvirus from mosaic-diseased apple trees in Japan and China

Noda, Hiroki, Yamagishi, Noriko, Yaegashi, Hajime, Xing, Fei, Xie, Jipeng, Li, Shifang, Zhou, Tao, Ito, Tsutae, Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki
Journal of general plant pathology 2017 v.83 no.2 pp. 83-90
Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple mosaic virus, Apple stem grooving virus, Apple stem pitting virus, Malus domestica, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, RNA, amino acid sequences, apples, coat proteins, genome, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, leaves, orchards, phylogeny, plant diseases and disorders, plant viruses, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, surveys, trees, viruses, China, Japan
The causal agent of apple mosaic disease has been previously thought to be solely caused by apple mosaic virus (ApMV). In this study, we report that a novel ilarvirus is also associated with apple mosaic disease. Next-generation sequencing analysis of an apple tree showing mosaic symptoms revealed that the tree was infected with three apple latent viruses (apple stem pitting virus, apple stem grooving virus, and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus) and a novel ilarvirus (given the name apple necrotic mosaic virus (ApNMV)) that is closely related to Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and ApMV. The genome of ApNMV consists of RNA1 (3378 nt), RNA2 (2767 nt), and RNA3 (1956 nt). A phylogenetic analysis based on the coat protein amino acid sequences indicated that the novel virus belongs to the same subgroup 3 of the genus Ilarvirus as PNRSV and ApMV. The presence of mosaic leaves, which tend to be unevenly distributed in diseased apple trees, was correlated with the internal distribution of ApNMV. RT-PCR detection of mosaic-diseased apple trees in Japan indicated that ApNMV was detected in apple trees introduced from China, whereas ApMV was detected from cultivated apple trees in domestic orchards. Consistent with these findings, a survey of mosaic-diseased apple trees in major apple-producing provinces in China revealed that the majority of apple trees showing mosaic symptoms in China are infected with ApNMV.