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Optimization low-fat and low cholesterol mayonnaise production by central composite design

Mozafari, H. R., Hosseini, E., Hojjatoleslamy, M., Mohebbi, G. Hossein, Jannati, N.
Journal of food science and technology 2017 v.54 no.3 pp. 591-600
cholesterol, emulsions, equations, firmness, ingredients, mayonnaise, oils, response surface methodology, sauces, soymilk, viscosity, xanthan gum
In this study, the optimized process variables for mayonnaise low in cholestrol and fat, which contained soy milk as a yolk substitute with different levels of Xanthan gum, Zodo gum, and oil, were determined by response surface methodology using a central composite design. Polynomial equation was fitted with an insignificant lack of fit factor in order to study the relationship between variables and responses including apparent viscosity, consistency coefficient, flow index, firmness, and stability of mayonnaise sauces. Results showed that increased amounts of Xanthan gum, Zodo gum and oil led to an increase in the apparent viscosity, the consistency coefficient, the firmness/emulsion stability of the mayonnaise, while the mayonnaise flow index was reduced. The interaction effects between Xanthan gum and Zodo gum, and between Xanthan gum and oil were significant on apparent viscosity. Optimum conditions of variables were obtained due to response ranges of commercial mayonnaise as following ingredients: 0.25% Xanthan gum, 3.84% Zodo gum, 37.50% oil, and with the replacement of 63.61% soy milk. Yolk, however, was replaced with soy milk without emulsion fracture up to 100%. This study showed good potential for Zodo gum native mixed with Xanthan gum and soy milk to be used as a fat and yolk substitute in mayonnaise, respectively.