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Optimization of Levan Production by Cold-Active Bacillus licheniformis ANT 179 and Fructooligosaccharide Synthesis by Its Levansucrase

Xavier, Janifer Raj, Ramana, Karna Venkata
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 2017 v.181 no.3 pp. 986-1006
Bacillus licheniformis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, GRAS substances, Gram-negative bacteria, carbon, casein, cosmetics, endotoxins, fermentation, food technology, industrial applications, inulin, kestose, levan, levansucrase, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, pH, peptones, response surface methodology, soil, sucrose, sugarcane juice, temperature, Antarctica
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and levan attract much attention due to a wide range of applications in food technology and pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Bacillus licheniformis ANT 179, isolated from Antarctica soil, produced levansucrase and levan in a medium containing sucrose as carbon substrate. In this study, characterization of levansucrase and production of short-chain FOS and levan were investigated. Temperature and pH optimum of the enzyme were found to be 60 °C and pH 6.0, respectively. The optimization of fermentation conditions for levan production using sugarcane juice by response surface methodology (RSM) was carried out. Central composite rotatable design was used to study the main and the interactive effects of medium components: sugarcane juice and casein peptone concentration on levan production by the bacterium. The optimized medium with sugarcane juice at 20 % (v/v) and casein peptone at 2 % (w/v) was found to be optimal at an initial pH of 7.0 and incubation temperature of 35 °C for 48 h. Under these conditions, the maximum levan concentration was 50.25 g/L on wet weight basis and 16.35 g/L on dry weight basis. The produced inulin type FOS (kestose and neokestose) and levan were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The study revealed that the levansucrase could form FOS from sucrose. The locally available low-cost substrate such as sugarcane juice in the form of a renewable substrate is proposed to be suitable even for scale-up production of enzyme and FOS for industrial applications. The levan and FOS synthesized by the bacterium are suitable for food applications and biomedical uses as the bacterium has GRAS status and devoid of endotoxin as compared to other Gram-negative bacteria.