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Diversity of endophytic fungi of common yew (Taxus baccata L.) in Iran

Jam Ashkezari, Saeideh, Fotouhifar, Khalil-Berdi
Mycological progress 2017 v.16 no.3 pp. 247-256
Agonomycetes, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Diaporthe, Eurotiomycetes, Hypocreales, Phoma, Taxus baccata, Trichosphaeriales, Xylaria, Zygomycota, anamorphs, bark, branches, endophytes, fungi, internal transcribed spacers, new taxa, phylogeny, ribosomal DNA, Iran
To characterize the endophytic fungi of common yew, 125 fungal strains were isolated from 80 healthy twig and bark samples. Of them, 41 (32.8%) isolates were identified on the basis of morphological features and 84 (67.2%) isolates were sterile. Of the 41 morphotypes, 40 isolates belonged to 21 genera and 26 species, with an isolate as anamorphic Xylaria. Most of the identified endophytic fungi belonged to mycelia sterilia (67.2%) and Ascomycota (32%) and the others belonged to Zygomycota (0.8%). Cladosporium and Alternaria were the dominant genera. Most of the identified species are new endophytes for common yew and Pseudodictyosporium elegans, Cladosporium basi-inflatum, C. perangustum, C. subtilissimum, Geniculosporium serpens, Phoma pratorum, Paraphoma fimeti, Phomopsis archeri, Sclerostagonospora cycadis, and Seimatosporium cf. pezizoides are reported as new taxa for the mycoflora of Iran. ITS rDNA phylogeny of 26 selected isolates revealed four clades, 1, 2, 3, and 4, corresponding to Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. Clade 1 included four groups, A, B, C, and D, representing, respectively, the Xylariales, Trichosphaeriales, Hypocreales, and Diaporthales identified. The results have shown that T. baccata in Iran harbors a wide and significant diversity of fungal endophytes.