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Genetic elaborations of glandular and non-glandular trichomes in Mentha arvensis genotypes: assessing genotypic and phenotypic correlations along with gene expressions

Mishra, Anand, Lal, R. K., Chanotiya, C. S., Dhawan, Sunita Singh
Protoplasma 2017 v.254 no.2 pp. 1045-1061
Mentha arvensis, biosynthesis, chemistry, chlorophyll, cultivars, essential oils, genes, genetic variation, genotype, glutathione transferase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, hairs, heritability, industry, leaves, malondialdehyde, menthol, odors, oils, phenolic compounds, phenotype, phenotypic correlation, phosphopyruvate hydratase, secondary metabolites, testa, transcription (genetics), transcription factors, trichomes, vascular plants
Mentha arvensis (corn mint) is well known for the production of menthol, a widely used commodity in pharma and flavoring industries and provides natural fragrances and products. Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the aerial surface of vascular plants species producing specific secondary metabolite chemistry. Correlations were established among trichomes, oil yield, and major secondary metabolites. Nine improved, elite cultivars representing different M. arvensis genotypes were used for analysis. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were estimated; results indicated the presence of considerable amount of genetic variability, thereby emphasizing wide scope of selection. Positive and significant associations were found among glandular trichomes, oil yield, essential oil constituents, and leaf morphology itself, whereas morphological parameters of leaf show positive and negative correlations to average number of trichome and essential oil constituents. Average number of glandular, non-glandular trichomes, their ratios, menthol content, and trichome number showed a good heritability. Trichomes were studied microscopically in leaf parts in all varieties for analyzing their distribution pattern. The trichome number variations showed significant correlation throughout the genotypes with essential oil yield and monoterpenoid constituents. Differential changes were analyzed for Glutathione S-transferases, Glutathione reductase, Malondialdehyde, phenolics, and chlorophyll content. Gene expressions were analyzed for biosynthesis genes and selected transcription factors TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1), ENOLASE 1, GLABRA 3, GTL 1, NUCLEAR TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Y SUBUNIT B-6, WRKY transcription factor 22, putative WRKY 33, WRKY 17, WRKY 1, and WRKY 65-like for harnessing their relation with trichome development in M. arvensis genotypes.