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Acute toxicity studies of Croton membranaceus root extract

Asare, George A., Sittie, A., Bugyei, K., Gyan, Ben A., Adjei, Samuel, Addo, Phyllis, Wiredu, Edwin K., Nyarko, Alex K., Otu-Nyarko, Lydia S., Adjei, David Nana
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2011 v.134 no.3 pp. 938-943
Croton, acute toxicity, alanine transaminase, albumins, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, blood, brain, creatinine, digestion, dryers, ethanol, freeze drying, globulins, hemoglobin, hyperplasia, ingestion, leaf extracts, milling, muscles, powders, rats, roots, tobacco, toxicity testing, urea, Bahamas, Ghana, Nigeria
AIM OF THE STUDY: Croton membranaceus root and leaf extracts are used in the Bahamas to aromatize tobacco, in Nigeria to improve digestion, and in Ghana, for benign prostate hyperplasia. Despite claims of success there is paucity of information on its toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine if Croton membranaceus has acute toxicity properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Roots were air-dried in a solar dryer for one week before milling. The powder was extracted with 96% ethanol, freeze-dried and re-extracted with distilled water and freeze-dried. 15 male Sprague–Dawley rats (180–200g) were divided equally into 2 treatment groups [low dose (LD) and high dose (HD)], plus a control group (C). LD and HD received 1500 and 3000mg/kg b.wt. Croton membranaceus aqueous extract, respectively, one time and observed for 14 days. Haematological [Full Blood Count and haemoglobin (Hb)], biochemical [bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatise (ALP), γ-glutamyltranspetidase (GGT), urea, creatinine, creatinine kinase – Muscle and Brain (CK-MB), creatinine kinase – Total (CK-R)] examinations were performed. RESULTS: Control group's CK-MB (5444±534U/L) and LD group CK-MB (4014±1016U/L) were significantly different (p<0.05). Control and the HD group CK-MB (3955±1135U/L) were significantly different (p<0.05). Both LD and HD CK-R levels (697±197U/L and 732±203U/L, respectively), were lower than the control (1139±220U/L) at 48h and 14 days (p<0.05, p<0.05, respectively). γ-GT levels of the HD group was 4.8±0.4U/L compared to the Control group value of 0.9±0.2U/L (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Taking all factors into consideration, Croton membranaceus ingestion does not produce general acute toxicity. However, its creatinine kinase lowering ability could be explored.