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Alginate/Gelatin scaffolds incorporated with Silibinin-loaded Chitosan nanoparticles for bone formation in vitro B Biointerfaces

Leena, R.S., Vairamani, M., Selvamurugan, N.
Colloids and surfaces 2017 v.158 pp. 308-318
adsorption, alginates, bioavailability, biomineralization, bone formation, bone morphogenetic proteins, bones, chitosan, colloids, drug delivery systems, freeze drying, gelatin, gelation, hydrophobicity, mice, microRNA, nanoparticles, osteoblasts, porosity, stem cells, tissue engineering
Silibinin is a plant derived flavonolignan known for its multiple biological properties, but its role in the promotion of bone formation has not yet been well studied. Moreover, the delivery of Silibinin is hindered by its complex hydrophobic nature, which limits its bioavailability. Hence, in this study, we fabricated a drug delivery system using chitosan nanoparticles loaded with Silibinin at different concentrations (20μM, 50μM, and 100μM). They were then incorporated into scaffolds containing Alginate and Gelatin (Alg/Gel) for the sustained and prolonged release of Silibinin. The Silibinin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (SCN) were prepared using the ionic gelation technique, and the scaffolds (Alg/Gel-SCN) were synthesized by the conventional method of freeze drying. The scaffolds were subjected to physicochemical and material characterization studies. The addition of SCN did not affect the porosity of the scaffolds, yet increased the protein adsorption, degradation rates, and bio-mineralization. These scaffolds were biocompatible with mouse mesenchymal stem cells. The scaffolds loaded with 50μM Silibinin promoted osteoblast differentiation, which was determined at cellular and molecular levels. Recent studies indicated the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in osteogenesis and we found that the Silibinin released from scaffolds regulated miRNAs that control the bone morphogenetic protein pathway. Hence, our results suggest the potential for sustained and prolonged release of Silibinin to promote bone formation and, thus, these Alg/Gel-SCN scaffolds may be candidates for bone tissue engineering applications.