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A modified method for pesticide transport and fate in subsurface environment of a winter wheat field of Yangling, China

Wu, Lei, Chang, Huanyu, Ma, Xiaoyi
The Science of the total environment 2017 v.609 pp. 385-395
aquatic environment, crops, farmers, irrigation rates, irrigation scheduling, nonpoint source pollution, pesticide application, pesticide residues, pollution control, prediction, soil depth, soil pollution, triadimefon, water conservation, water requirement, water resources, winter wheat, China
The Guanzhong region is one of the water resources shortage areas and also an important food producing area in Chinese Loess Plateau. The unreasonable application of irrigation and pesticide not only reduces the utilization rate of pesticides, but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments. In order to explore the reasonable application pattern of irrigation and pesticide, a modified method considering crop water requirement and pesticide transport was established to simulate transport and fate of Triadimefon in subsurface environment of a winter wheat field in Yangling, China. Results indicate that: (1) the modified method introduces the concepts of crop water requirement and irrigation schedule, which can estimate irrigation amount more accurately and achieve the goal of water saving and agricultural diffuse pollution control more efficiently. The method shows good potential applications and implications in predicting pesticide exposure levels of different crops and in reducing pesticide pollution. (2) The changing trends of soil pesticide levels under different pesticide applications are various. The Triadimefon concentration level in surface soil layer (0.005m) was directly affected by pesticide application and irrigation. The Triadimefon peak below the soil depth of 0.035m has prominently delayed effects and it is mainly affected by irrigations. The concentration of pesticides decays rapidly with the increase of soil depth, and it can be ignored below the depth of 0.5m. (3) The soil pesticide levels under different pesticide and irrigation modes show considerable differences, the irrigation is still the most significant factor affecting the level of soil pesticide residues under different time intervals between pesticide application and irrigation. The irrigation scheme of one-day interval and five-divided irrigation can effectively reduce deep soil pollution without affecting the normal growth of crops. Results may provide theoretical basis and guide farmers to choose appropriate irrigation and pesticide application patterns.