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Stearic acid suppresses mammary gland development by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway through GPR120 in pubertal mice

Meng, Yingying, Yuan, Cong, Zhang, Jing, Zhang, Fenglin, Fu, Qin, Zhu, Xiaotong, Shu, Gang, Wang, Lina, Gao, Ping, Xi, Qianyun, Sun, Jiajie, Zhang, Yongliang, Jiang, Qingyan, Wang, Songbo
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2017
G-protein coupled receptors, cyclins, dietary fat, epithelial cells, high fat diet, mammary development, mammary glands, messenger RNA, mice, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, protein synthesis, signal transduction, small interfering RNA, stearic acid
It has been demonstrated that dietary high fat diet negatively affects the pubertal mammary gland development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of stearic acid (SA), an 18-carbon chain saturated fatty acid, on mammary gland development in pubertal mice and to explore the underlying mechanism. Our results demonstrated that dietary supplementation of 2% SA suppressed mammary duct development, with significant reduction of terminal end bud (TEB) number and ductal branch. In accord, the expression of proliferative marker Cyclin D1 was markedly decreased by dietary SA. Furthermore, dietary SA led to increase of G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) expression and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in mammary gland of pubertal mice. In good agreement with the in vivo findings, the in vitro results showed that 40 μM SA significantly suppressed proliferation of mouse mammary epithelial cell HC11 by regulating mRNA and/or protein expression of proliferative markers such as Cyclin D1/3, p21, and PCNA. Meanwhile, SA activated GPR120 and inhibited PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a GPR120-dependent manner. In addition, SA-induced inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, suppression of HC11 proliferation, and alteration of proliferative markers expression were abolished by knockdown of GPR120 with siRNA. Collectively, these findings showed that SA suppressed mammary gland development of pubertal mice, which was coincident with the SA-inhibited HC11 proliferation, and was associated with inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway through activation of GPR120. These data provided new insights into the regulation of mammary gland development by dietary fatty acids.