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Does trade openness affect CO2 emissions: evidence from ten newly industrialized countries?

Zhang, Shun, Liu, Xuyi, Bae, Junghan
Environmental science and pollution research international 2017 v.24 no.21 pp. 17616-17625
carbon dioxide, developing countries, greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy, trade
This paper examines whether the hypothetical environmental Kuznet curve (EKC) exists or not and investigates how trade openness affects CO₂ emissions, together with real GDP and total primary energy consumption. The study sample comprises ten newly industrialized countries (NICs-10) from 1971 to 2013. The results support the existence of hypothetical EKC and indicate that trade openness negatively and significantly affects emissions, while real GDP and energy do positive effects of emissions. Moreover, the empirical results of short-run causalities indicate feedback hypothetical linkage of real GDP and trade, unidirectional linkages from energy to emissions, and from trade to energy. The error correction terms (ECTs) reveal in the long run, feedback linkages of emissions, real GDP, and trade openness, while energy Granger causes emissions, real GDP, and trade, respectively. The study recommendations are that our policymakers should encourage and expand the trade openness in these countries, not only to restrain CO₂ emissions but also to boost their growth.