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Ecological risk assessment of an open dumping site at Mehmood Booti Lahore, Pakistan

Alam, Asifa, Tabinda, Amtul Bari, Qadir, Abdul, Butt, Talib E., Siddique, Sidra, Mahmood, Adeel
Environmental science and pollution research international 2017 v.24 no.21 pp. 17889-17899
World Health Organization, adverse effects, air, carbon dioxide, coliform bacteria, computer software, environmental assessment, greenhouse gas emissions, groundwater, hazard identification, health effects assessments, health surveys, heavy metals, landfills, methane, models, pollution, risk, risk assessment process, soil, solid wastes, surface water, Pakistan
A robust risk assessment of Mehmood Booting Open Dumping (MBOD) site has been carried out by developing holistic risk assessment framework. Framework mainly comprises on baseline study, hazard identification, and risk quantification and evaluation. Physico-chemical analysis of groundwater and leachate, health risk assessment, and estimation of gas emissions from the site were carried out for risk evaluation. LandGEM 3.02 modelling software was used to measure the gas emissions. Analysis of leachate showed that all parameters were exceeding the WHO standard limit. Water samples were found polluted with heavy metals and total coliform contamination. Health survey inferred that problems which were faced by the majority of respondents were respiratory problems (80%). LandGEM model estimated that total landfill gas (TLG) emitted from the site for the year 2014 was 1.760E+05 Mg/year, CH₄ emission was 5.445E+06 Mg/year, CO₂ emission was 1.290E+05 Mg/year and for non-methane organic compound emission was 2.021E+03 Mg/year. It can be concluded that in the near future, almost all the water locations are possibly threatened with leachate contamination due to the continued accumulation of solid waste at MBOD site. The study recommends that new sanitary landfill sites should be designed to minimize the adverse effects associated with solid waste disposal and to preclude further pollution to surface water, groundwater, soil, and air.