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Neuroprotective Activity of Cerebrosides from Typhonium giganteum by Regulating Caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2 Signaling Pathways in PC12 Cells

Jin, Yang, Fan, Jun-Ting, Gu, Xiao-Ling, Zhang, Li-Ying, Han, Jing, Du, Shu-Hu, Zhang, Ai-Xia
Journal of natural products 2017 v.80 no.6 pp. 1734-1741
Typhonium, apoptosis, caspase-3, caspase-9, cerebrosides, cytochrome c, longans, median effective concentration, neuroprotective effect, rhizomes, signal transduction, spectral analysis
An investigation of the potential neuroprotective natural product constituents of the rhizomes of Typhonium giganteum led to the isolation of two new cerebrosides, typhonosides E (1) and F (2), along with 11 known analogues (3–13). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The activity of these compounds against glutamate-induced cell apoptosis was investigated in PC12 cells. All compounds exhibited such activity, which was related to the length of the fatty acyl chain. Among them, longan cerebroside II (11), with the longest fatty acyl chain, showed the most potent protective effect in PC12 cells from glutamate injury, with an EC₅₀ value of 2.5 μM. Moreover, at the molecular level, longan cerebroside II (11) downregulated the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bax, upregulated the expression of Bcl-2, and decreased the level of cytosolic cytochrome c in a concentration-dependent manner.