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Phylogenomics of 2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol-Producing Pseudomonas and Novel Antiglycation Endophytes from Piper auritum

Gutiérrez-García, Karina, Neira-González, Adriana, Pérez-Gutiérrez, Rosa Martha, Granados-Ramírez, Giovana, Zarraga, Ramon, Wrobel, Kazimierz, Barona-Gómez, Francisco, Flores-Cotera, Luis B.
Journal of natural products 2017 v.80 no.7 pp. 1955-1963
Piper auritum, Pseudomonas, advanced glycation end products, bioactive properties, biosynthesis, ecological function, endophytes, evolution, fractionation, isomers, medicinal plants, multigene family, natural history, polyketides
2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) (1) is a phenolic polyketide produced by some plant-associated Pseudomonas species, with many biological activities and ecological functions. Here, we aimed at reconstructing the natural history of DAPG using phylogenomics focused at its biosynthetic gene cluster or phl genes. In addition to around 1500 publically available genomes, we obtained and analyzed the sequences of nine novel Pseudomonas endophytes isolated from the antidiabetic medicinal plant Piper auritum. We found that 29 organisms belonging to six Pseudomonas species contain the phl genes at different frequencies depending on the species. The evolution of the phl genes was then reconstructed, leading to at least two clades postulated to correlate with the known chemical diversity surrounding DAPG biosynthesis. Moreover, two of the newly obtained Pseudomonas endophytes with high antiglycation activity were shown to exert their inhibitory activity against the formation of advanced glycation end-products via DAPG and related congeners. Its isomer, 5-hydroxyferulic acid (2), detected during bioactivity-guided fractionation, together with other DAPG congeners, were found to enhance the detected inhibitory activity. This report provides evidence of a link between the evolution and chemical diversity of DAPG and congeners.