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Molecular analysis of Salmonella serotypes at different stages of commercial turkey processing

Anderson, P. N., Hume, M. E.
Poultry science 2010 v.89 pp. 2030
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Derby, Salmonella typhimurium, bacterial contamination, cooling, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, food contamination, genes, genotype, genotyping, meat processing, meat processing plants, polymerase chain reaction, poultry carcasses, poultry production, processing stages, ribosomal DNA, scalding, serotypes, turkeys, washing, United States
Salmonella isolates were collected from 2 commercial turkey processing plants (A and B) located in different US geographical locations. Isolates recovered at different stages of processing were subjected to 2 genotype techniques [PAGE and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] to determine their usefulness for Salmonella serotyping. Primers used for PCR amplification were to a highly conserved spacer region located between the 16S and 23S rDNA genes. Sampling sites at plant A were 1) postscald, 2) pre-inside-outside bird wash, 3) post-IOBW, and 4) postchill with 30, 44, 36, and 12 Salmonella isolates recovered, respectively. Plant B had an additional site and these locations were 1) prescald, 2) postscald, 3) pre-inside-outside bird wash, 4) post-IOBW, and 5) postchill with 16, 54, 24, 35, and 24 Salmonella isolates recovered, respectively. In plant A, 4 different Salmonella serotypes were identified: Derby, Hadar, Montevideo, and Senftenberg. In plant B, 10 serotypes were identified: Agona, Anatum, Brandenburg, Derby, Hadar, Meleagridis, Montevideo, Reading, Senftenberg, and Typhimurium. Salmonella Derby was predominant in plant A (83%), whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the most common serotype recovered in plant B (39%). Genotype analyses of the Salmonella serotypes were expressed in dendrograms with comparisons interpreted as percentage similarity coefficients. Both PAGE and DGGE were able to distinguish serotype band patterns. However, DGGE was more discriminating than PAGE. Isolates of the same serotypes were grouped together on the dendrogram of band patterns generated by DGGE. In contrast, PAGE failed to group all like serotypes together on the corresponding dendrogram. The results of the study suggest that genotyping techniques can be very useful in discriminating Salmonella serotypes collected from the processing plant environment of commercial poultry production. These molecular techniques may offer more cost-effective means to identify Salmonella serotypes from large numbers of isolates and with more immediate results than those currently achieved with conventional typing techniques.