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Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors

Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu, Rahuman, Abdul Abdul, Rajakumar, Govindasamy, Marimuthu, Sampath, Bagavan, Asokan, Jayaseelan, Chidambaram, Zahir, Abdul Abduz, Elango, Gandhi, Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal
Parasitology research 2011 v.108 no.3 pp. 693-702
Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaeaceae, X-ray diffraction, acetates, acetone, biosynthesis, chloroform, filariasis, hexane, ions, larvae, leaf extracts, leaves, lethal concentration 50, malaria, methanol, nanoparticles, scanning electron microscopy, silver
The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and aqueous leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results recorded from UV–vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy was observed in crude methanol, aqueous, and synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC50 = 8.89, 11.82, and 0.69 ppm; LC90 = 28.65, 36.06, and 2.15 ppm) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 9.51, 13.65, and 1.10 ppm; LC90 = 28.13, 35.83, and 3.59 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf methanol, aqueous extracts of N. nucifera, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.