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Functional Genomic Analysis of Two Staphylococcus aureus Phages Isolated from the Dairy Environment

García, Pilar, Martínez, Beatriz, Obeso, José María, Lavigne, Rob, Lurz, Rudi, Rodríguez, Ana
Applied and environmental microbiology 2009 v.75 no.24 pp. 7663-7673
DNA, Staphylococcus aureus, amino acid sequences, bacteriophages, dairies, genes, genomics, lysogeny, mass spectrometry, milk, open reading frames, packaging, point mutation, proteins, sequence analysis, virion
The genomes of the two lytic mutant Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophages, vB_SauS-phiIPLA35 (phiIPLA35) and vB_SauS-phiIPLA88 (phiIPLA88), isolated from milk have been analyzed. Their genomes are 45,344 bp and 42,526 bp long, respectively, and contain 62 and 61 open reading frames (ORFS). Enzymatic analyses and sequencing revealed that the phiIPLA35 DNA molecule has 3'-protruding cohesive ends (cos) 10 bp long, whereas phiIPLA88 DNA is 4.5% terminally redundant and most likely is packaged by a headful mechanism. N-terminal amino acid sequencing, mass spectrometry, bioinformatic analyses, and functional analyses enabled the assignment of putative functions to 58 gene products, including DNA packaging proteins, morphogenetic proteins, lysis components, and proteins necessary for DNA recombination, modification, and replication. Point mutations in their lysogeny control-associated genes explain their strictly lytic behavior. Muralytic activity associated with other structural components has been detected in virions of both phages. Comparative analysis of phiIPLA35 and phiIPLA88 genome structures shows that they resemble those of φ12 and φ11, respectively, both representatives of large genomic groupings within the S. aureus-infecting phages.