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Rapid Electrochemical Reduction of Ni(II) Generates Reactive Monolayers for Conjugated Polymer Brushes in One Step
- Roy, Anandi, Gao, Jing, Bilbrey, Jenna A., Huddleston, N. Eric, Locklin, Jason
- Langmuir 2014 v.30 no.34 pp. 10465-10470
- aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorine, diazonium compounds, electrochemistry, electrodes, gold, nickel, polymers, salts
- This article reports the development of a robust, one-step electrochemical technique to generate surface-bound conjugated polymers. The electrochemical reduction of arene diazonium salts at the surface of a gold electrode is used to generate tethered bromobenzene monolayers quickly. The oxidative addition of reactive Ni(0) across the aryl halide bond is achieved in situ through a concerted electrochemical reduction of Ni(dppp)Cl₂. This technique limits the diffusion of Ni(0) species away from the surface and overcomes the need for solution deposition techniques which often require multiple steps that result in a loss of surface coverage. With this electrochemical technique, the formation of the reactive monolayer resulted in a surface coverage of 1.29 × 10¹⁴ molecules/cm², which is a 6-fold increase over previously reported results using solution deposition techniques.