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Aggregation of Colloidal Particles in the Presence of Multivalent Co-Ions: The Inverse Schulze–Hardy Rule

Cao, Tianchi, Szilagyi, Istvan, Oncsik, Tamas, Borkovec, Michal, Trefalt, Gregor
Langmuir 2015 v.31 no.24 pp. 6610-6614
coagulation, colloids, electrolytes, equations, latex, light scattering
Shifts of the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) in particle suspensions in salt solutions containing multivalent co-ions and monovalent counterions are rationalized. One observes that the CCC is inversely proportional to the valence, and this behavior is referred to as the inverse Schulze–Hardy rule. This dependence is established by means of measurements of the stability ratio for positively and negatively charged latex particles with time-resolved light scattering. The same dependence is equally suggested by calculations of the CCC with the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory, whereby the full Poisson–Boltzmann equation for the asymmetric electrolytes has to be used. The latter aspect is essential, since in the case of multivalent co-ions the surface charge is principally neutralized by monovalent counterions. This rule complements the classical Schulze–Hardy rule, which applies in the case of multivalent counterions, and states that the CCC is inversely proportional to the sixth power of the valence.