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Effect of Heteroatoms in Ordered Microporous Carbons on Their Electrochemical Capacitance
- Itoi, Hiroyuki, Nishihara, Hirotomo, Kyotani, Takashi
- Langmuir 2016 v.32 no.46 pp. 11997-12004
- boron, capacitance, carbon, electrochemistry, electrolytes, macropores, micropores, nitrogen, oxidation, oxygen, porosity, porous media, pyridines, surface area
- Micropores play a more important role in enhancing the electrochemical capacitance than mesopores and macropores; therefore, the effect of heteroatom doping into micropores on the electrochemical behavior is interesting. However, heteroatom doping into porous carbon materials would potentially change their pore structures and pore sizes, which also affect their electrochemical capacitive behaviors. To gain insight into the intrinsic effects of heteroatoms on the electrochemical capacitive behaviors, zeolite-templated carbon (ZTC) may be the most suitable candidate. ZTC is an ordered microporous carbon with a uniform micropore size of 1.2 nm, a high surface area, and a large micropore volume. In this work, a series of ZTCs containing oxygen, nitrogen, or boron as heteroatoms, with an ordered pore structure and the same pore size, are prepared. By examining their electrochemical capacitive behaviors in an organic electrolyte, the effect of heteroatom doping can be isolated and discussed without considering the effects of pore structure and pore size. Acid anhydride groups are found to generate pseudocapacitance in two potential ranges, −1.0 to −0.3 V (vs Ag/AgClO₄) and −0.2 to 0.4 V. B is introduced into the ZTC framework solely as −B(OH)₂, which is found to be an electrochemically inert species. N is introduced as pyridine (3.0%), pyridone/pyrrole (23.8%), quaternary (66.6%), and oxidized N (6.6%), and these species exhibit noticeable pseudocapacitance in the microporous carbon.