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Effects of Mechanical Properties of Lipid Bilayers on the Entry of Cell-Penetrating Peptides into Single Vesicles
- Islam, Md. Zahidul, Sharmin, Sabrina, Levadnyy, Victor, Alam Shibly, Sayed Ul, Yamazaki, Masahito
- Langmuir 2017 v.33 no.9 pp. 2433-2443
- cholesterol, fluorescent dyes, hydrazides, hydrophilicity, lipid bilayers, mechanical properties, peptides, plasma membrane
- The translocation of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) through plasma membranes of living cells is an important physiological phenomenon in biomembranes. To reveal the mechanism underlying the translocation of a CPP, transportan 10 (TP10), through lipid bilayers, we examined the effects of the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers on the entry of carboxyfluorescein (CF)-labeled TP10 (CF-TP10) into a giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) using the single GUV method. First, we examined the effect of lateral tension in membranes on the entry of CF-TP10 into single GUVs comprising a mixture of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) (2/8). CF-TP10 entered the GUV lumen before the membrane permeation of Alexa Fluor 647 hydrazide (AF647) from the GUV and thus before pore formation in the membrane. The fraction of entry of CF-TP10 before pore formation and the rate of membrane rupture increased with tension. The CF-TP10-induced fractional change in the membrane area increased continuously with time until membrane rupture, but it increased more slowly than did the CF-TP10 concentration in the GUV membrane. A high mole fraction of cholesterol inhibited the entry of CF-TP10 into single GUVs by suppressing the translocation of CF-TP10 from the external to the internal monolayer, although higher concentrations of CF-TP10 induced the formation of pores through which CF-TP10 rapidly translocated. Suppression of the translocation of CF-TP10 by cholesterol can be reasonably explained by the large line tension of a prepore. We discussed the role of mechanical properties in membranes on the entry of CF-TP10 into single GUVs and proposed a hypothesis of the mechanism that CF-TP10 translocates across a bilayer through transient hydrophilic prepores in the membrane.