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Congruent population structure across paralogous and nonparalogous loci in Salish Sea chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta)

Waples, R. K., Seeb, J. E., Seeb, L. W.
Molecular ecology 2017 v.26 no.16 pp. 4131-4144
Oncorhynchus keta, chromosome mapping, genetic analysis, genetic variation, genome, loci, multivariate analysis, pedigree, population structure, sequence analysis, Canada, United States
Whole‐genome duplications are major evolutionary events with a lasting impact on genome structure. Duplication events complicate genetic analyses as paralogous sequences are difficult to distinguish; consequently, paralogs are often excluded from studies. The effects of an ancient whole‐genome duplication (approximately 88 MYA) are still evident in salmonids through the persistence of numerous paralogous gene sequences and partial tetrasomic inheritance. We use restriction site‐associated DNA sequencing on 10 collections of chum salmon from the Salish Sea in the USA and Canada to investigate genetic diversity and population structure in both tetrasomic and rediploidized regions of the genome. We use a pedigree and high‐density linkage map to identify paralogous loci and to investigate genetic variation across the genome. By applying multivariate statistical methods, we show that it is possible to characterize paralogous loci and that they display similar patterns of population structure as the diploidized portion of the genome. We find genetic associations with the adaptively important trait of run‐timing in both sets of loci. By including paralogous loci in genome scans, we can observe evolutionary signals in genomic regions that have routinely been excluded from population genetic studies in other polyploid‐derived species.