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Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions Affected by Irrigation, Tillage, Crop Rotation, and Nitrogen Fertilization

Author:
Upendra M. Sainju, William B. Stevens, Thecan Caesar-TonThat, Mark A. Liebig
Source:
Journal of environmental quality 2012 v.41 no.6 pp. 1774-1786
ISSN:
0047-2425
Subject:
Hordeum vulgare, Pisum sativum, barley, carbon dioxide, continuous cropping, conventional tillage, crop rotation, fertilizer application, global warming, greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gases, irrigation, malt, methane, nitrogen fertilizers, nitrous oxide, no-tillage, peas, sampling, sandy loam soils, soil temperature, North Dakota
Abstract:
Management practices, such as irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization, may influence soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We quantified the effects of irrigation, tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil CO₂, N₂O, and CH₄ emissions from March to November, 2008 to 2011 in a Lihen sandy loam in western North Dakota. Treatments were two irrigation practices (irrigated and nonirrigated) and five cropping systems (conventional-tilled malt barley [Hordeum vulgaris L.] with N fertilizer [CT-N], conventional-tilled malt barley with no N fertilizer [CT-C], no-tilled malt barley–pea [Pisum sativum L.] with N fertilizer [NT-PN], no-tilled malt barley with N fertilizer [NT-N], and no-tilled malt barley with no N fertilizer [NT-C]). The GHG fluxes varied with date of sampling and peaked immediately after precipitation, irrigation, and/or N fertilization events during increased soil temperature. Both CO₂ and N₂O fluxes were greater in CT-N under the irrigated condition, but CH₄ uptake was greater in NT-PN under the nonirrigated condition than in other treatments. Although tillage and N fertilization increased CO₂ and N₂O fluxes by 8 to 30%, N fertilization and monocropping reduced CH₄ uptake by 39 to 40%. The NT-PN, regardless of irrigation, might mitigate GHG emissions by reducing CO₂ and N₂O emissions and increasing CH₄ uptake relative to other treatments. To account for global warming potential for such a practice, information on productions associated with CO₂ emissions along with N₂O and CH₄ fluxes is needed.
Agid:
57809
Handle:
10113/57809