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Application of ergothioneine-rich extract from an edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes for melanosis prevention in shrimp, Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei

Encarnacion, Angel B., Fagutao, Fernand, Jintasataporn, Orapint, Worawattanamateekul, Wanchai, Hirono, Ikuo, Ohshima, Toshiaki
Food research international 2012 v.45 no.1 pp. 232-237
Flammulina velutipes, Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus monodon, binding sites, catechol oxidase, fruiting bodies, genes, hemocytes, ice, mushrooms, prophenoloxidase, shrimp, sodium sulfite, wastes
This report investigated the melanosis-inhibiting properties of crude water soluble extract from the base and fruiting body waste of an edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) containing 9.13±2.03mg/mL 2-thiol-l-histidine-betaine (ergothioneine, ESH). Immersion of live full-grown black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in a 0.5% w/v solution of mushroom extract for 1h significantly decreased polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity in shrimp hemolymph and expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene in hemocytes. Consequently, the development of melanosis in the treated shrimp during ice storage was prevented. Treatment with a 0.05% w/v solution of sodium sulfite and 4-hexyl-1,3-benzenediol had a similar effect. Enzyme assays showed that ESH is a non-competitive inhibitor. It is proposed that ESH possibly interacts directly with Cu²⁺ at the putative binding sites of PPO and proPO, based on copper-chelating activity analyses, thus preventing melanosis in the shrimp. This study indicated that application of ESH-rich F. velutipes mushroom extract from trimming waste is an effective natural alternative to synthetic melanosis-inhibiting agents to prevent postmortem melanosis in shrimp.