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Microbial Transglutaminase Used in Bread Preparation at Standard Bakery Concentrations Does Not Increase Immunodetectable Amounts of Deamidated Gliadin

Heil, Andreas, Ohsam, Jürgen, van Genugten, Bernard, Diez, Oscar, Yokoyama, Keiichi, Kumazawa, Yoshiyuki, Pasternack, Ralf, Hils, Martin
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.32 pp. 6982-6990
breads, celiac disease, deamidation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, gliadin, immunoblotting, immunotoxicity, monoclonal antibodies, patients, protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase
The effect of standard bakery concentrations of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) in wheat bread preparation on the immunoreactivity of sera of celiac disease (CD) patients was investigated. Immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific to unmodified and/or deamidated gliadin showed no differences between control bread and MTG bread. Deamidation of gliadin could not be detected at standard MTG concentrations. Sera of CD patients were characterized using anti-gliadin and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and grouped into DGP high- and low-titer pools. The recognition pattern obtained after using both CD sera pools for immunoblotting did not reveal differences between control and MTG-treated bread protein extracts. Our results indicate that MTG treatment of wheat bread prepared with typical MTG concentrations used in standard bakery processes does not lead to immunodetectable amounts of CD immunotoxic deamidated gliadins.