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Comparative analysis of different groups of phenolic compounds in fruit and leaf extracts of Aronia sp.: A. melanocarpa, A. arbutifolia, and A. ×prunifolia and their antioxidant activities
- Szopa, Agnieszka, Kokotkiewicz, Adam, Kubica, Paweł, Banaszczak, Piotr, Wojtanowska-Krośniak, Agnieszka, Krośniak, Mirosław, Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula, Badura, Anna, Zagrodzki, Paweł, Bucinski, Adam, Luczkiewicz, Maria, Ekiert, Halina
- European food research & technology 2017 v.243 no.9 pp. 1645-1657
- 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Aronia arbutifolia, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, chlorogenic acid, cyanidin, fruits, leaf extracts, leaves, phenolic acids, quercetin, quercitrin, raw materials, rosmarinic acid, rutin, small fruits
- Anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids were estimated in methanolic extracts from the fruits and leaves of three chokeberries—Aronia melanocarpa, Aronia arbutifolia, and Aronia ×prunifolia. The fruits contained significant amounts of cyanidin glycosides (0.3–323.2 mg/100 g DW) and two phenolic acids: chlorogenic acid (16.3–273.5 mg/100 g DW) and neochlorogenic acid (92.3–212.6 mg/100 g DW). The leaf extracts contained high amounts of flavonols: quercetin, quercitrin, and rutin (62.1–367.0 mg/100 g DW), as well as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, and rosmarinic acid (max. 724.2, 482.7, 154.7 mg/100 g DW, respectively). Of the examined materials, A. arbutifolia leaves were characterized by the highest total phenolics content (9148.2 mg gal. ac. Eq./100 g DW) and showed the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and FRAP assays. The results demonstrate that fruits of A. arbutifolia and A. ×prunifolia are a rich source of antioxidants and can be used as plant raw materials, alternatively to A. melanocarpa berries. Leaves of the investigated species are of potential therapeutic and dietary interest because of their high flavonol and phenolic acid content.