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Band Gap Engineering of Titania Film through Cobalt Regulation for Oxidative Damage of Bacterial Respiration and Viability

Li, Jinhua, Wang, Jiaxing, Wang, Donghui, Guo, Geyong, Yeung, Kelvin W. K., Zhang, Xianlong, Liu, Xuanyong
ACS applied materials & interfaces 2017 v.9 no.33 pp. 27475-27490
Staphylococcus epidermidis, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, bacterial infections, biocompatible materials, cobalt, energy, engineering, gene expression regulation, genes, in vitro studies, methicillin, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, microbial activity, models, mortality, nanoparticles, osteomyelitis, patients, rats, reactive oxygen species, titanium dioxide, viability
Biomaterial-related bacterial infections cause patient suffering, mortality, and extended periods of hospitalization and impose a substantial burden on medical systems. In this context, understanding the interactions between nanomaterials and bacteria is clinically significant. Herein, TiO₂-based heterojunctions, including Co–TiO₂, CoO–TiO₂, and Co₃O₄–TiO₂, were first designed by optimizing magnetron sputtering to establish a platform to explore the interactions between nanomaterials and bacteria. We found that the energy band bending and band gap narrowing were effectively promoted at the contact interface of the heterojunctions, which have the ability to induce abiotic reactive oxygen species formation. Using methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, in vitro studies showed that the heterojunctions of Co–TiO₂, CoO–TiO₂, and especially Co₃O₄–TiO₂ can effectively downregulate the expression levels of bacterial respiratory genes and cause oxidative damage to bacterial membrane respiration and viability. As a result, the surfaces of the heterojunctions possess a favorable antiadherent bacterial activity. Moreover, using an osteomyelitis model, the preclinical study on rats further confirmed the favorable anti-infection effect of the elaborately designed heterojunctions (especially Co₃O₄–TiO₂). We hope this study can provide new insights into the surface antibacterial design of biomaterials using energy band engineering for both basic research and clinical needs. Meanwhile, this attempt may also contribute to expanding the biomedical applications of cobalt-based nanoparticles for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections.