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Appraisal of biochemical classes of radioprotectors: evidence, current status and guidelines for future development
- Mishra, Krishnanand, Alsbeih, Ghazi
- 3 Biotech 2017 v.7 no.5 pp. 292
- Salmonella, adverse effects, antioxidants, biomarkers, cell proliferation, chelating agents, cytokines, flagellin, free radicals, minerals, models, oxidative stress, phytopharmaceuticals, potassium iodide, radioprotective agents, radioprotective effect, radiotherapy, signal transduction, thiols, toxicity, vitamins
- The search for efficient radioprotective agents to protect from radiation-induced toxicity, due to planned or accidental radiation exposure, is still ongoing worldwide. Despite decades of research and development of widely different biochemical classes of natural and derivative compounds, a safe and effective radioprotector is largely unmet. In this comprehensive review, we evaluated the evidence for the radioprotective performance of classical thiols, vitamins, minerals, dietary antioxidants, phytochemicals, botanical and bacterial preparations, DNA-binding agents, cytokines, and chelators including adaptogens. Where radioprotection was demonstrated, the compounds have shown moderate dose modifying factors ranging from 1.1 to 2.7. To date, only few compounds found way to clinic with limited margin of dose prescription due to side effects. Most of these compounds (amifostine, filgratism, pegfilgrastim, sargramostim, palifermin, recombinant salmonella flagellin, Prussian blue, potassium iodide) act primarily via scavenging of free radicals, modulation of oxidative stress, signal transduction, cell proliferation or enhance radionuclide elimination. However, the gain in radioprotection remains hampered with low margin of tolerance. Future development of more effective radioprotectors requires an appropriate nontoxic compound, a model system and biomarkers of radiation exposure. These are important to test the effectiveness of radioprotection on physiological tissues during radiotherapy and field application in cases of nuclear eventualities.