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Pharmacokinetics of nebulized and subcutaneously implanted terbinafine in cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus)
- Kane, L. P., Allender, M. C., Archer, G., Leister, K., Rzadkowska, M., Boers, K., Souza, M., Cox, S.
- Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics 2017 v.40 no.5 pp. 575-579
- Agkistrodon piscivorus, adults, atomization, blood, fungi, high performance liquid chromatography, pharmacokinetics, snakes
- Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of snake fungal disease, is proposed as a serious threat to the conservation of several snake populations. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of terbinafine administered through nebulization and a sustained subcutaneous implant as potential treatments of Ophidiomyces in reptiles. Seven adult cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) were used in single‐dose trials. Each snake was nebulized with terbinafine (2 mg/ml) for 30 min and had blood collected before nebulization and up to 12 hr after nebulization. Following a 5‐month washout, the same snakes were administered a subcutaneous implant containing 24.5 mg terbinafine; blood was collected at baseline, 1 day postimplant placement, and then once weekly for 9 weeks. Plasma for both studies was analyzed by high‐performance liquid chromatography. The mean plasma concentrations of nebulized terbinafine peaked between 0.5 and 4 hr. The subcutaneously implanted terbinafine reached therapeutic concentrations on day 1 and maintained therapeutic for over 6 weeks. These methods and doses are recommended as potential treatment options for snake fungal disease in reptiles.