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Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of oxytetracycline for the porcine pneumonia pathogens Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida
- Dorey, L., Pelligand, L., Cheng, Z., Lees, P.
- Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics 2017 v.40 no.5 pp. 505-516
- Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Monte Carlo method, Pasteurella multocida, antibacterial properties, blood serum, minimum inhibitory concentration, models, mutants, oxytetracycline, pathogens, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, plate count, pneumonia, swine
- Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) integration and modelling were used to predict dosage schedules of oxytetracycline for two pig pneumonia pathogens, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) were determined in broth and porcine serum. PK/PD integration established ratios of average concentration over 48 h (Cₐᵥ₀–₄₈ ₕ)/MIC of 5.87 and 0.27 μg/mL (P. multocida) and 0.70 and 0.85 μg/mL (A. pleuropneumoniae) for broth and serum MICs, respectively. PK/PD modelling of in vitro time–kill curves established broth and serum breakpoint values for area under curve (AUC₀–₂₄ ₕ)/MIC for three levels of inhibition of growth, bacteriostasis and 3 and 4 log₁₀ reductions in bacterial count. Doses were then predicted for each pathogen, based on Monte Carlo simulations, for: (i) bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels of kill; (ii) 50% and 90% target attainment rates (TAR); and (iii) single dosing and daily dosing at steady‐state. For 90% TAR, predicted daily doses at steady‐state for bactericidal actions were 1123 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 43 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae) based on serum MICs. Lower TARs were predicted from broth MIC data; corresponding dose estimates were 95 mg/kg (P. multocida) and 34 mg/kg (A. pleuropneumoniae).