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Specific Binding Constant and Stoichiometry Determination in Free Solution by Mass Spectrometry and Capillary Electrophoresis Frontal Analysis

Qian, Cheng, Fu, Hengqing, Kovalchik, Kevin A., Li, Huihui, Chen, David Da Yong
Analytical chemistry 2017 v.89 no.17 pp. 9483-9490
B-cell lymphoma, DNA, apoptosis, binding capacity, capillary electrophoresis, drugs, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, equations, oncogenes, promoter regions, stoichiometry, transcription (genetics)
A free solution method was developed for evaluating the specific binding affinity and stoichiometry of small molecules with oligo DNA subsequent to cation-induced G-quadruplex formation. A nonlinear curve fitting equation capable of extracting specific binding constants in the presence of nonspecific binding without the need for reference compounds was proposed and tested. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was first used to rapidly screen the small molecule candidates; then, the stoichiometry and affinity constants of the native state binding pair in solution were obtained with capillary electrophoresis frontal analysis (CE-FA). The B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) oncogene is directly responsible for the expression of Bcl-2 protein, which plays a significant role in cell apoptosis. The binding of a G-quadruplex formed in the promoter region of the Bcl-2 oncogene with a small molecule could stabilize the quadruplex structure and potentially regulate the transcription of Bcl-2. Four natural product drug candidates were tested for their ability to bind the Bcl-2 promoter G-quadruplex. Using this reference-free method based on CE-FA data, jatrorrhizine and palmatine were found to bind specifically to the Bcl-2 promoter G-quadruplex with stoichiometries of 4:1 and 3:1, respectively.