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Component analysis of nutritionally rich chloroplasts: recovery from conventional and unconventional green plant species

Gedi, Mohamed A., Briars, Rhianna, Yuseli, Felius, Zainol, Noorazwani, Darwish, Randa, Salter, Andrew M., Gray, David A.
Journal of food science and technology 2017 v.54 no.9 pp. 2746-2757
alpha-linolenic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, biomass, chloroplasts, grasses, humans, ingredients, iron, leaves, lutein, manganese, minerals, nutrients, nutritive value, proteins, spinach
A study of the literature indicates that chloroplasts synthesise a range of molecules, many of which have nutritional value for humans, but the nutritional credentials of chloroplasts recovered from plant cells are not established. Chloroplast-rich-fractions (CRFs) were prepared from green plant species and the macro- and micro-nutrient composition compared with the whole leaf materials (WLMs). The results indicated that, on a dry weight basis, CRF material from a range of green biomass was enriched in lipids and proteins, and in a range of micronutrients compared with the WLM. Vitamins E, pro-vitamin A, and lutein were all greater in CRF preparations. Of the minerals, iron was most notably concentrated in CRF. Spinach CRFs possessed the highest α-tocopherol [62 mg 100 g⁻¹, dry weight (DW)], β-carotene (336 mg 100 g⁻¹ DW) and lutein (341 mg 100 g⁻¹ DW) contents, whilst grass CRFs had the highest concentration of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (69.5 mg g⁻¹). The higher concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, ALA and trace minerals (Fe and Mn) in CRFs suggested their potential use as concentrated ingredients in food formulations deficient in these nutrients.