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Antibacterial Activity of Reactive Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Solution and in Nonleachable Coatings

G. Gozzelino, D. E. Romero Romero Tobar, N. Chaitiemwong, W. Hazeleger, R. Beumer
Journal of food protection 2011 v.74 no.12 pp. 2107-2112
Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, ammonium, antibacterial properties, aqueous solutions, bacteria, biocides, carbon, coatings, copolymerization, crosslinking, leaching, moieties, polymers, quaternary ammonium compounds, resins, stainless steel, ultraviolet radiation, urethane
Antibacterial polymers suitable for coating applications without leaching of the biocidal component have been obtained by UV copolymerization of acrylic resins with acrylic monomers containing quaternary ammonium moieties. Suitable reactive biocides, based on quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs), endowed with undecylacryloyl group and alkyl chains with 2 (QAM-C2), 8 (QAM-C8), and 16 (QAM-C16) carbon atoms have been synthesized. Aqueous solutions of QAMs showed biocidal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes strains both in suspension and adhered to stainless steel surfaces. QAM-C16 and QAM-C8 evidenced higher activity toward bacteria in suspension and on stainless steel, respectively. The QAMs have shown sufficient reactivity to be copolymerized, by UV irradiation, with a commercial urethane acrylic resin for coating. Bioactivity tests, performed on free films of crosslinked coatings containing 1% of copolymerized QAM, have shown an increasing inactivation effect in the order of magnitude L. monocytogenes < E. coli < S. aureus with a maximum activity of the QAM-C8.