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Effect of Dietary Lipids on Endotoxemia Influences Postprandial Inflammatory Response

López-Moreno, Javier, García-Carpintero, Sonia, Jimenez-Lucena, Rosa, Haro, Carmen, Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A., Blanco-Rojo, Ruth, Yubero-Serrano, Elena M., Tinahones, Francisco J., Delgado-Lista, Javier, Pérez-Martínez, Pablo, Roche, Helen M., López-Miranda, José, Camargo, Antonio
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.35 pp. 7756-7763
adipose tissue, binding proteins, dietary fat, endotoxemia, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, gene expression, glucose, inflammation, intestinal absorption, lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, metabolic syndrome, mononuclear leukocytes, omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, placebos, saturated fats
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) results in postprandial metabolic alterations that predisposes one to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress. We aimed to assess the effect of the consumption of the quantity and quality of dietary fat on fasting and postprandial plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPS). A subgroup of 75 subjects with metabolic syndrome was randomized to receive 1 of 4 diets: HSFA, rich in saturated fat; HMUFA, rich in monounsaturated fat; LFHCC n-3, low-fat, rich in complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; LFHCC low-fat, rich in complex carbohydrate diet supplemented with placebo, for 12 weeks each. We administered a fat challenge reflecting the fatty acid composition of the diets at postintervention. We determined the plasma lipoproteins and glucose and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and adipose tissue. LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP) plasma levels were determined by ELISA, at fasting and postprandial (4 h after a fat challenge) states. We observed a postprandial increase in LPS levels after the intake of the HSFA meal, whereas we did not find any postprandial changes after the intake of the other three diets. Moreover, we found a positive relationship between the LPS plasma levels and the gene expression of IkBa and MIF1 in PBMC. No statistically significant differences in the LBP plasma levels at fasting or postprandial states were observed. Our results suggest that the consumption of HSFA diet increases the intestinal absorption of LPS which, in turn, increases postprandial endotoxemia levels and the postprandial inflammatory response.