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Identification and Functional Characterization of the Glycogen Synthesis Related Gene Glycogenin in Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas)

Li, Busu, Meng, Jie, Li, Li, Liu, Sheng, Wang, Ting, Zhang, Guofan
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.35 pp. 7764-7773
Crassostrea gigas, biosynthesis, breeding, cytoplasm, exons, flavor, genes, glycogen, glycogen (starch) synthase, gonads, muscles, oysters, site-directed mutagenesis
High glycogen levels in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) contribute to its flavor, quality, and hardiness. Glycogenin (CgGN) is the priming glucosyltransferase that initiates glycogen biosynthesis. We characterized the full sequence and function of C. gigas CgGN. Three CgGN isoforms (CgGN-α, β, and γ) containing alternative exon regions were isolated. CgGN expression varied seasonally in the adductor muscle and gonadal area and was the highest in the adductor muscle. Autoglycosylation of CgGN can interact with glycogen synthase (CgGS) to complete glycogen synthesis. Subcellular localization analysis showed that CgGN isoforms and CgGS were located in the cytoplasm. Additionally, a site-directed mutagenesis experiment revealed that the Tyr200Phe and Tyr202Phe mutations could affect CgGN autoglycosylation. This is the first study of glycogenin function in marine bivalves. These findings will improve our understanding of glycogen synthesis and accumulation mechanisms in mollusks. The data are potentially useful for breeding high-glycogen oysters.