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Morphology agrees with molecular data: phylogenetic affinities of Euptychiina butterflies (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae)
- MARÍN, MARIO A., PEÑA, CARLOS, URIBE, SANDRA I., FREITAS, ANDRÉ V. L.
- Systematic entomology 2017 v.42 no.4 pp. 768-785
- DNA, Neotropics, Nymphalidae, butterflies, genitalia, monophyly, polyphyly, synapomorphy
- Euptychiina is the most species‐rich subtribe of Neotropical Satyrinae, with over 450 known species in 47 genera (14 monotypic). Here, we use morphological characters to examine the phylogenetic relationships within Euptychiina. Taxonomic sampling included 105 species representing the majority of the genera, as well as five outgroups. A total of 103 characters were obtained: 45 from wing pattern, 48 from genitalia and 10 from wing venation. The data matrix was analysed using maximum parsimony under both equal and extended implied weights. Euptychiina was recovered as monophyletic with ten monophyletic genera, contrasting previous DNA sequence‐based phylogenies that did not recover the monophyly of the group. In agreement with sequence‐based hypotheses, however, three main clades were recognized: the ‘Megisto clade’ with six monophyletic and three polyphyletic genera, the ‘Taygetis clade’ with nine genera of which three were monophyletic, and the ‘Pareuptyhia clade’ with four monophyletic and two polyphyletic genera. This is the first morphology‐based phylogenetic hypothesis for Euptychiina and the results will be used to complement molecular data in a combined analysis and to provide critical synapomorphies for clades and genera in this taxonomically confused group.