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Biofortification with Iron and Zinc Improves Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Common Wheat Flour and Bread
- Ciccolini, Valentina, Pellergrino, Elisa, Coccina, Antonio, Fiaschi, Anna Ida, Cerretani, Daniela, Sgherri, Cristina, Quartacci, Mike Frank, Ercoli, Laura
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.27 pp. 5443-5452
- bioavailability, biofortification, breadmaking, breads, functional foods, health promotion, iron, milling, protective effect, wheat, wheat flour, whole grain flour, zinc
- The effect of field foliar Fe and Zn biofortification on concentration and potential bioavailability of Fe and Zn and health-promoting compounds was studied in wholemeal flour of two common wheat varieties (old vs modern). Moreover, the effect of milling and bread making was studied. Biofortification increased the concentration of Zn (+78%) and its bioavailability (+48%) in the flour of the old variety, whereas it was ineffective in increasing Fe concentration in both varieties. However, the old variety showed higher concentration (+41%) and bioavailability (+26%) of Fe than the modern one. As regard milling, wholemeal flour had higher Fe, Zn concentration and health-promoting compounds compared to white flour. Bread making slightly change Fe and Zn concentration but greatly increased their bioavailability (77 and 70%, respectively). All these results are of great support for developing a production chain of enriched functional bread having a protective role against chronic cardio-vascular diseases.