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Chemical Composition of Blackberry Press Cake, Polyphenolic Extract, and Defatted Seeds, and Their Effects on Cecal Fermentation, Bacterial Metabolites, and Blood Lipid Profile in Rats
- Kosmala, Monika, Jurgonski, Adam, Juskiewicz, Jerzy, Karlinska, Elzbieta, Macierzynski, Jakub, Roj, Edward, Zdunczyk, Zenon
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.27 pp. 5470-5479
- beta-glucuronidase, blackberries, blood, blood lipids, butyrates, cecum, cellulose, cholesterol, colon, fermentation, isomers, lipid composition, metabolites, polyphenols, propionic acid, rats, seeds
- Blackberry fiber (BF), extracted blackberry fiber (EBF), defatted blackberry seeds (DBS), and blackberry polyphenols (BP) were added to the diets of rats. A control diet, fiber diets (BF, EBF, DBS) with 6% addition instead of cellulose, and a polyphenol diet (BP) with 1% addition were administered for 4 weeks. BF and DBS contained polyphenols (3.6%); EBF did not. DBS was free of fat. Ellagitannins were the main phenolics, mostly dimers (sanguiin H-6 with isomers) and monomers (pedunculagin, casuarictin isomer, and sanguiin H-2 isomer). Trimers (lambertianin C with isomers) and tetramers (lambertianin D) were in the minority. EBF increased the production of propionate and butyrate in the cecum and improved the blood lipid profile. Polyphenols beneficially decreased the activity of cecal β-glucuronidase, but they may have also increased cholesterol levels in blood. Bacterial metabolism of ellagitannins in the colon gave rise to nasutin A and urolithin A.