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Proposed Biotransformation Pathways for New Metabolites of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Based on Field and Experimental Mussel Samples

Ding, Ling, Qiu, Jiangbing, Li, Aifeng
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.27 pp. 5494-5502
Alexandrium tamarense, Mytilus galloprovincialis, biotransformation, metabolites, mussels, poisoning, seafood-borne illness, shellfish, toxins, China
A seafood poisoning event occurred in Qinhuangdao, China, in April 2016. Subsequently, the causative mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were harvested and analyzed to reveal a high concentration [∼10 758 μg of saxitoxin (STX) equiv kg–1] of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), including gonyautoxin (GTX)1/4 and GTX2/3, as well as new metabolites 11-hydroxy-STX (M2), 11,11-dihydroxy-STX (M4), open-ring 11,11-dihydroxy-STX (M6), 11-hydroxy-neosaxitoxin (NEO) (M8), and 11,11-dihydroxy-NEO (M10). To understand the origin and biotransformation pathways of these new metabolites, uncontaminated mussels (M. galloprovincialis) were fed with either of two Alexandrium tamarense strains (ATHK and TIO108) under laboratory conditions. Similar PST metabolites were also detected in mussels from both feeding experiments. Results supposed that 11-hydroxy-C2 toxin (M1) and 11,11-dihydroxy-C2 (M3) are transformed from C2, while 11-hydroxy-C4 toxin (M7) and 11,11-dihydroxy-C4 (M9) are converted from C4. In addition, the metabolites M2, M4, and M6 appear to be products of GTX2/3, and the metabolites M8 and M10 are likely derived from GTX1/4.