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CTRP6 Regulates Porcine Adipocyte Proliferation and Differentiation by the AdipoR1/MAPK Signaling Pathway

Wu, Wenjing, Zhang, Jin, Zhao, Chen, Sun, Yunmei, Pang, Weijun, Yang, Gongshe
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2017 v.65 no.27 pp. 5512-5522
adipocytes, adipogenesis, adipokines, intramuscular fat, mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphorylation, pork quality, prediction, recombinant proteins, signal transduction, subcutaneous fat, swine
Intramuscular fat (IMF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF), which are modulated by adipogenesis of intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes, play key roles in pork quality. C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), an adipokine, plays an important role in the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. However, the effect and regulatory mechanisms of CTRP6 on porcine adipogenesis, and whether CTRP6 has the same effect on intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes, are still unknown. Here, we found that CTRP6 significantly inhibited both adipocyte proliferation assessed by proliferative marker expression, but CTRP6 decreased the proliferation rate of intramuscular adipocytes (IM) to a greater extent than subcutaneous adipocytes (SC). Moreover, CTRP6 promoted the activity of the p38 signaling pathway during the proliferation of both cell types. Nevertheless, in subcutaneous adipocytes, CTRP6 also influenced the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases1/2 (p-Erk1/2), but not in intramuscular adipocytes. Additionally, during the differentiation of intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocytes, CTRP6 increased adipogenic genes expression and the level of p-p38, while it decreased the activity of p-Erk1/2. Interestingly, the effect of CTRP6 shRNA or CTRP6 recombinant protein was attenuated by U0126 (a special p-Erk inhibitor) or SB203580 (a special p-p38 inhibitor) in adipocytes. By target gene prediction and experimental validation, we demonstrated that CTRP6 may be a target of miR-29a in porcine adipocytes. Moreover, AdipoR1was identified as a receptor of CTRP6 in intramuscular adipocytes, but not in subcutaneous adipocytes. On the basis of the above findings, we suggest that CTRP6 was the target gene of miR-29a, inhibited intramuscular and subcutaneous adipocyte proliferation, but promoted differentiation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. These findings indicate that CTRP6 played an essentially regulatory role in fat development.