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Hop stunt viroid: Effect on Host (Humulus lupulus) Transcriptome and Its Interactions With Hop Powdery Mildew (Podospheara macularis)
- Kappagantu, Madhu, Bullock, Jeff M., Nelson, Mark E., Eastwell, Kenneth C.
- Molecular plant-microbe interactions 2017 v.30 no.10 pp. 842-851
- Hop stunt viroid, Humulus lupulus, RNA, chitinase, gene expression, gene expression regulation, genes, hops, host-pathogen relationships, hosts, immune response, leaves, lipids, metabolism, nucleotide sequences, plant pathogens, powdery mildew, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, terpenoids, transcription (genetics), transcriptome, transcriptomics, viroids
- Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens that exploit host systems for their replication and cause diseases in many hosts. In this study, the host response of hop plants to Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) infection was studied through transcriptome analysis. RNA sequence analysis of hop leaves infected with HSVd revealed dynamic changes in hop gene expression. Defense-related genes and genes involved in lipid and terpenoid metabolism are the major categories that showed differential expression due to HSVd infection. Additionally, the effect of HSVd on development of hop powdery mildew (Podospheara macularis) (HPM) was studied. Transcriptome analysis followed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that transcript levels of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes such as PR protein 1, chitinase, and thaumatin-like protein genes are induced in leaves infected with HPM alone. The response in these genes to HPM is significantly down-regulated in leaves with HSVd-HPM mixed infection. These results confirm that HSVd alters host metabolism, physiology, and plant defense responses. Nevertheless, in detached leaf assays, HPM consistently expanded faster on HSVd-negative leaves relative to HSVd-positive leaves. Although HSVd infection suppresses elements associated with the host immunity response, infection by HSVd is antagonistic to HPM infection of hops.