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Control of Salmonella in food related environments by chemical disinfection

Møretrø, Trond, Heir, Even, Nesse, Live L., Vestby, Lene K., Langsrud, Solveig
Food research international 2012 v.45 no.2 pp. 532-544
Salmonella, adaptation, antimicrobial properties, bacteria, cleaning, cross contamination, disinfectants, disinfection, food industry, food preparation, foods, households, physiological response, physiological state, risk, starvation, temperature
Salmonella may be transferred to food through cross-contamination during processing and preparation. To minimise the risk of cross-contamination, proper cleaning and disinfection is essential for the food industry. Recently, disinfection of areas for preparation and storage of food has also gained increased popularity in households. There is a range of disinfectants available with different properties and usage areas, and care must be taken to choose the proper disinfectant for the specific application. There are many methods for testing the antimicrobial effect of disinfectants. To evaluate whether a disinfectant will be effective in practical settings, the test method should model real-life situations. Most disinfectants are effective against Salmonella at recommended user concentration in suspension tests. However, a number of factors may reduce the biocidal effect of disinfectants under practical conditions. This include properties of the surface to be disinfected, presence of soiling on the surface, the physiological state of the bacteria exposed to disinfection, including bacteria embedded in biofilms, and the effects of other stresses (e.g. desiccation, starvation and temperature). Here we review the effects of disinfectants used in food related areas in industries and in households against Salmonella. A general overview is given for disinfectants in use and methods used to evaluate effects. Effects of disinfectants against Salmonella in suspension and on surfaces, including biofilms, are presented and compared. Novel control strategies such as use of electrolysed water, antimicrobial surfaces, and anti-biofilm compounds are also covered. Finally, we review the ability of Salmonella to gain reduced susceptibility to disinfectants through adaptation and other physiological responses like biofilm formation.